When computers boot up, obviously some software manages that process. On Linux and other Unix or Unix-like systems, this is usually handled via an init system. For example, macOS uses launchd and many Linux distributions, including Ubuntu, use systemd.
systemd does more than handle the startup process, it also manages various services and connects the Linux kernel to various applications. In this section, we'll cover how to use systemd to manage services, and to review log files.
When we install complicated software, like a web server (e.g., Apache2, Nginx), a SSH server (e.g., OpenSSH), or a database server (e.g., mariaDB or MySQL), then it's helpful to have commands that manage that service (the web service, the SSH service, the database service, etc).
For example, the
ssh service is installed
by default on our gcloud servers, and
we can check its status with the following
systemctl status ssh
The output tells us a few things. The line beginning with Loaded tells us that the SSH service is configured. At the end of that line, it also tells us that it is enabled, which means that the service will automatically start when the system gets rebooted or starts up.
The line beginning with Active tells us
that the service is active (running) and for how long.
It has to say this since I'm connecting to the machine
If the service was not active (running), then
I wouldn't be able to login remotely.
We also can see the process ID (PID) for the service
as well as how much memory it's using.
At the bottom of the output,
we can see the recent log files.
We can view more of those log files
By default, running
journalctl by itself
will return all log files, but
we can specify that we're interested in
log files only for the ssh service.
We can specify using the PID number.
Replace NNN with the PID number attached
to your ssh service:
Or we can specify by service, or more specifically, its unit name:
journalctl -u ssh
Later we'll install the Apache web server, and
we will use
systemctl to manage some aspects of this service.
In particular, we will use the following commands to:
- check the state of the Apache service,
- configure the Apache service to auto start on reboot,
- start the service,
- reload the service after editing its configuration files, and
- stop the service.
In order, these work out to:
systemctl status apache2 sudo systemctl enable apache2 sudo systemctl start apache2 sudo systemctl reload apache2 sudo systemctl stop apache2
systemctl is a big piece of software, and
there are other arguments the command will take.
man systemct for details.
As mentioned, the
journalctl command is
part of the systemd software suite, and
it is used to monitor system logs.
It's really important to monitor system logs. They help identify any problems in the system or with various services. For example, by monitoring the log entries for ssh, I can see all the attempts to break into the server. Or if the Apache2 web server malfunctions for some reason, which might be because of a configuration error, the logs will indicated how to identify the problem.
If we type
journalctl at the command prompt,
we are be presented with the logs for the entire system.
These logs can be paged through by pressing the space bar,
the page up/page down keys, or
the up/down arrow keys, and
they can also be searched by pressing the forward slash / and
then entering a search keyword.
To exit out of the pager,
press q to quit.
It's much more useful to specify the field and
to declare an option when using
See the following man pages for details:
man systemd.journal-fields man journalctl
There are many fields and options we can use, but as an example, we see that there is an option to view the more recent entries first (which is not the default):
Or we view log entries in reverse order, for users on the system, and since the last boot with the following options:
journalctl -r --user -b 0
Or for the system:
journalctl -r --system -b 0
I can more specifically look at the
logs files for a service by using the
journalctl -u apache2
I can follow the logs in real-time (press ctrl-c to quit the real-time view):
You can see more of what
can do by reading through their documentation:
man systemctl man journalctl
You can check if a service if enabled:
systemctl is-enabled apache2
You can reboot, poweroff, or suspend a system (suspending a system mostly makes sense for laptops and not servers):
systemctl reboot systemctl poweroff systemctl suspend
To show configuration file changes to the system:
To list real-time control group process, resource usage, and memory usage:
- to search failed processes/services:
systemctl --state failed
- to list services
systemctl list-unit-files -t service
- to examine boot time:
This is a basic introduction to systemd, which is composed of a suite of software to help manage booting a system, managing services, and monitoring logs.
We'll put what we've learned into practice when we set up our LAMP servers.