Local Security


Most security issues come from the network, but we also need to secure a system from insider attacks, too. We can do that by setting appropriate file permissions and by making sure users on a system do not have certain kinds of access (e.g., sudo access) to some utilities. For example, the /usr/bin/gcc program is the GNU C and C++ compiler. If users have unrestricted access to that compiler, then it's possible for them to compile programs that compromise the system.

In the next section, we'll cover how to set up a firewall, but in this section, we'll learn how to set up a chroot jail.

As we all know, the Linux file system has a root directory /, and under this directory are other directories like /home, /bin, and so forth. A chroot (change root) jail is a way to create a pseudo root directory at some specific location in the directory tree, and then build an environment in that pseudo root directory that offers some applications. One that environment is setup, we can then confine a user account(s) to that pseudo directory, and when they login to the server, they will only be able to see (e.g., with the cd command) what's in that pseudo root directory and only be able to use the applications that we've made available in that chroot.

Thus, a chroot jail is a technology used to change the "apparent root / directory for a user or a process" and confine that user to that location on the system. A user or process that is confined to the chroot jail cannot easily see or access the rest of the file system and will have limited access to the binaries (executables/apps/utilities) on the system. From its man page:

chroot (8) - run command or interactive shell with special root directory

Although it is not security proof, it does have some useful security use cases. Some use chroot to contain DNS servers, for example.

chroot is also the conceptual basis for some kinds of virtualization technologies that are common today, like Docker.

Chroot a Current User

In this tutorial, we are going to create a chroot for a human user account.

  1. Let's create a new user. After we create the new user, we will chroot that user going forward.

    sudo adduser vader
  2. Next, we chroot vader into a new directory. That directory will be located at /opt/chroot. Note that the root directory for our regular users is /, but user vader's root directory will be different /opt/chroot, even if they can't tell. We also want to check the permissions of the new directory and make sure it's owned by root. If not, use chown root:root /opt/chroot to set it.

    sudo mkdir /opt/chroot
    ls -ld /opt/chroot
  3. Now we set up available binaries for the user. We'll only allow bash for now. To do that, we'll create a /usr/bin directory in /opt/chroot, and copy bash to that directory.

    which bash
    sudo mkdir -p /opt/chroot/usr/bin
    cp /usr/bin/bash /opt/chroot/usr/bin/
  4. Large software applications have dependencies (aka, libraries). We need to copy those libraries to our chroot for the applications, like Bash, to function. To identify libraries needed by bash, we use the ldd command:

    ldd /usr/bin/bash

    Use the locate command to identify the locations of the libraries. The ones we need should be located in the /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ directory. The locate command might need to be installed and updated first. Here I show how to use it to locate one of the dependencies, but there are more than one for you to locate:

    sudo apt install mlocate
    sudo updatedb
    locate libtinfo.so.6

    Create a /opt/chroot/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ directory for the libraries. We'll name the library directory after the originals to stay consistent with the main environment.

    sudo mkdir -p /opt/chroot/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu
    sudo cp /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libtinfo.so.6 \
  5. Create and test the chroot

    sudo chroot /opt/chroot/
    bash-5.1# ls
    bash: ls: command not found
    bash-5.1# help
    bash-5.1# dirs
    bash-5.1# cd bin/
    bash-5.1# dirs
    bash-5.1# cd ../lib64/
    bash-5.1# dirs
    bash-5.1# cd ..
    bash-5.1# exit
  6. Create a new group called chrootjail. We can add users to this group that we want to jail. Instructions are based on linuxconfig.org.

    groupadd chrootjail
    usermod -a -G chrootjail vader
    groups vader
  7. Edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config to direct users in the chrootjail group to the chroot directory. Add the following line at the end of the file. Then restart ssh server.

    sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    Match group chrootjail
                ChrootDirectory /var/chroot/

    Exit nano, and restart ssh:

    systemctl restart sshd
  8. Test the ssh connection for the vader user.

    ssh vader@localhost
    -bash-5.1$ ls
    -bash: ls: command not found

    That works as expected. The user vader is now restricted to a special directory and has limited access to the system or to any utilities on that system.


By using the ldd command, you can add additional binaries for this user. As an exercise, use the ldd command to locate the libraries for the nano editor, and make nano available to the user vader in the chrooted directory.


Systems need to be secure from the inside and out. In order to secure from the inside, system users should be given access and permissions as needed.

In this section, we covered how to create a chroot jail for a new user on our system. The jail confines the user to this pseudo location and provides the user limited access to that file system and to the software on the system.

We can jail non-human users, too. Any user listed in /etc/passwd can be jailed, and most users listed in that file are services.

Jailing a human user may not be necessary. On a multi-user system, proper education and training about the policies and uses of the system may be all that's needed. But in case a stricter environment is needed, now you know how to create a chroot jail.