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linux:working-in-the-shell [2019/01/21 11:15] (current)
seanburns created
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 +<​markdown>​
 +# Working in the shell
 +## Date: Wed Sep 26 17:51:57 EDT 2018
  
 +## File basics
 +
 +- ``ls`` : list directory contents
 +- ``cp`` : copy files and directories
 +- ``mv`` : move (rename) files
 +- ``rm`` : remove files or directories
 +- ``shred`` : overwrite a file to hide its contents, and 
 +  optionally delete it
 +- ``ln`` : make links between files
 +
 +## Directory basics
 +
 +- ``cd`` : change the shell working directory
 +- ``pwd`` : print name of current/​working directory
 +- ``basename`` : strip directory and suffix from filenames
 +- ``dirname`` : strip last component from file name
 +- ``mkdir`` : create a directory
 +- ``rmdir`` : remove empty directories
 +
 +## View Files
 +
 +- ``cat`` : concatenate files and print on the standard output
 +- ``tac`` : concatenate and print files in reverse
 +- ``less`` : opposite of more
 +- ``more`` : file perusal filter for crt viewing
 +- ``head`` : output the first part of files
 +- ``tail`` : output the last part of files
 +- ``nl`` : number lines of files
 +- ``od`` : dump files in octal and other formats
 +- ``xxd`` : make a hexdump or do the reverse
 +- ``comm`` : compare two sorted files line by line
 +- ``cmp`` : copmare two files byte by byte
 +- ``diff`` : compare files line by line
 +- ``sdiff`` : side-by-side merge of file differences
 +- ``diff3`` : compare three files line by line
 +
 +## Vie file properties
 +
 +- ``stat`` : get file status
 +- ``wc`` : print newline, word, and byte counts for each ffile
 +- ``du`` : estimate file space usage
 +- ``file`` : determine file type
 +- ``touch`` : change file timestamps
 +
 +## Modify file properties
 +
 +- ``chown`` : change file owner and group
 +- ``chgrp`` : change group ownership
 +- ``chmod`` : change file mode bits
 +- ``chattr`` : change file attributes on a Linux file system
 +
 +## Locate files
 +
 +- ``find`` : search for files in a directory hierarchy
 +- ``locate`` : find files by name
 +- ``which`` : locate a command
 +- ``apropos`` : search the manual page names and descriptions
 +- ``type`` : display informatino about command type
 +- ``whereis`` : locate the binary, source, and manual pages files for a command
 +
 +## Manipulate files, fields, and characters
 +
 +- ``grep`` : print lines matching a pattern
 +- ``sort`` : sort lines of text files
 +- ``uniq`` : report or omit repeated lines
 +- ``tee`` : read from standard input and write to standard output and files
 +- ``cut`` : remove sections from each line of files
 +- ``paste`` : merge lines of files
 +- ``join`` : join lines of two files on a common field
 +- ``tr`` : translate or delete characters
 +- ``expand`` : convert tabs to spaces
 +- ``unexpand`` : convert spaces to tabs
 +- ``sed`` : stream editor for filtering and transforming text
 +- ``awk`` : pattern scanning and processing language
 +
 +## Compress and/or package files
 +
 +- ``gzip`` : compress or expand files
 +- ``gunzip`` : compress or expand files
 +- ``bzip2`` or ``bunzip2``:​ a block-sorting file compressor
 +- ``zip`` : package and compress (archive) files
 +- ``unzip`` : list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive
 +- ``tar`` : an archiving utility
 +
 +## Examine disk usage and filesystems
 +
 +- ``df`` : report file system disk space usage
 +- ``mount`` : mount filesystem
 +- ``umount`` : unmount filesystem
 +- ``udisksctl`` : The udisks command line tool
 +- ``fsck`` : check and repair a Linux filesystem
 +- ``lsblk`` : list block devices
 +
 +## Check spelling
 +
 +- ``look`` : display lines beginning with a given string
 +- ``aspell`` : interactive spell checker
 +
 +## Viewg and control running processes
 +
 +- ``ps`` : report a snapshot of the current processes
 +- ``pgrep`` or ``pkill`` : look up or signal processes based on name and other 
 +  attributes
 +- ``pstree`` : display a tree of processes
 +- ``top`` : display Linux processes
 +- ``htop`` : interactive process viewer
 +- ``journalctl`` : Query the systemd journal
 +- ``systmed-cgls`` : Recursively show control group contents
 +- ``uptime`` : Tell how long the system has been running
 +- ``free`` : Display amount of free and used memory in the system
 +- ``kill`` : send a signal to a process
 +- ``nice`` : run a program with modified scheduling priority
 +- ``renice`` : alter priority of running processes
 +
 +## Output to screen ​
 +
 +- ``echo`` : display a line of text
 +- ``printf`` : format and print data
 +- ``seq`` : print a sequence of numbers
 +- ``clear`` : clear the terminal screen
 +
 +## Do math
 +
 +- ``expr`` : evaluate expressions
 +- ``dc`` : an arbitrary precision calculator
 +- ``bc`` : An arbitrary precision calculator language
 +
 +## Date and time utilities
 +
 +- ``cal`` or ``ncal`` : displays a calendar and teh date of Easter
 +- ``date`` : print or set the system date and time
 +
 +## Schedule jobs
 +
 +- ``sleep`` : delay for a specified amount of time
 +- ``watch`` : execute a program periodically,​ showing output full screen
 +- ``crontab`` : maintain crontab files for individual users
 +
 +## Others to address
 +
 +- ``wget`` : The non-interactive network downloader
 +</​markdown>​
linux/working-in-the-shell.txt ยท Last modified: 2019/01/21 11:15 by seanburns