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lq:volume-4 [2017/01/29 15:39]
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seanburns
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---- +====== LQ Volume ======
-layout: post +
-title: "LQ Vol Issue 1 Article 1: Reading Study" +
-date: 2014-01-03 00:57 +
-comments: true +
-categories: [LQ Autoethno Field Notes, research, Author-Kelley, Affil-Queens Borough Public Library] +
----+
  
-For an explanation of this post, see: +Notes on the four issues in the fourth volume of //The Library Quarterly//.
-[Preface](/blog/2013/08/14/lq-autoethnography-research-journal-preface/)+
  
----+Background and in-progress literature review:
  
-This entry is about:+  * [[LQ:Background]] 
 +  * [[LQ:Literature-review]]
  
-Kelley, Grace O. (1934). The Democratic Function of +**Notes:**
-Public Libraries. *The Library Quarterly, 4*(1), 1-15. +
-url:[http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302034](http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302034)+
  
---- +  [[LQ:Volume 4 Issue 1]] 
- +  * [[LQ:Volume 4 Issue 2]] 
-**Note:** The first article of the first issue of the +  * [[LQ:Volume 4 Issue 3]] 
-fourth volume of *The Library Quarterly* is titled "The +  * [[LQ:Volume Issue 4]]
-Democratic Function of Public Libraries." +
- +
-It was written by Grace O. Kelley, who was affiliated +
-with: +
- +
-**Affiliation:** Queens Borough Public Library +
- +
-**Note:** And this is one of the core beliefs about +
-(free) public libraries: +
- +
-> Of all such essays none has been more truly democratic +
-> and liberal in motive, or, dare we say, in some +
-> respects naïve, than the creation of the free public +
-> library (p. 1). +
- +
-This article does not take the above notion granted. +
-Instead it examines, and perhaps, criticizes the notion. +
-Such that: +
- +
-> Today, economic and political conditions are such that +
-> librarians are being forced to examine these broad +
-> assumptions to find out what measure of truth lies +
-> therein; to determine more clearly the actual relation +
-> which exists between the library and the people whom +
-> it serves; and to explain the nature and to justify +
-> the results of library service. They are realizing +
-> that the hoped-for ends are not implicit nor realized +
-> automatically, but that "critical attention" to the +
-> direction and character of its growth" is needed if +
-> the public library is to be a "true agency for +
-> education" (p. 3). +
- +
-Again, this is written during the Great Depression. +
- +
-**Note:** If there has been a paradigm shift, in a +
-slightly Kuhnian sense but more cultural, then it +
-happened because of a gestalt switch in how libraries +
-have been conceived over time: +
- +
-> Before the appearance of the free library as we know +
-> it today it is worth noting that the word "library" +
-> had a different meaning. The precursors of the public +
-> library had been the private libraries, the +
-> proprietary, academy, and society libraries, the +
-> college, university, and state libraries, none of +
-> these wholly free or tax-supported. The right of using +
-> the books was usually granted only to those who met +
-> prescribed conditions as to education, fees, and +
-> membership, although it is doubtless true that the +
-> serious student could obtain the privilege without +
-> subscribing to all of the conditions (p. 4). +
- +
-**Note:** Just a tidbit -- the author uses the term +
-"library world" on page 5. Earliest record of the use of +
-that term? +
- +
-**Note:** On special libraries -- the term *special* is +
-in quotes in the previous sentence (unquoted): +
- +
-> The special library, so called for want of a better +
-> term, is the direct and inevitable product of the +
-> machine age and of the era of specialization in all +
-> fields of knowledge. Wealth has increased, education +
-> has expanded, and occupational opportunities have +
-> changed, releasing vast numbers from routine work and +
-> making it necessary for them to prepare themselves for +
-> other kinds of activity. The older professions have +
-> increased their numbers and have required that their +
-> employees meet definite educational standards (p. 5). +
- +
-**Note:** The relation of special library and other +
-libraries to the topic of this article, the free public +
-library: +
- +
-> Thus, before and since the era of the free public +
-> library, all other libraries have been almost entirely +
-> selective institutions established for use under +
-> prescribed conditions. Particular needs of certain +
-> classes of readers have been met. With the exception +
-> of the proprietary libraries, the various types which +
-> existed before the public library continue to function +
-> today in increased strength and numbers. To these have +
-> been added the highly selective special library, a +
-> direct outgrowth of the present age of specialization +
-> (p. 7). +
- +
-And in light of these contrasting libraries: +
- +
-> In distinction to all of these, the function of the +
-> free public library has been to serve the people as a +
-> whole, collectively; the masses, the general public, +
-> the ordinary folk, were to be supplied with books in +
-> preparation for the duties which democracy was +
-> thrusting upon them (p. 7). +
- +
-**Note:** Important distinction between public education +
-and public libraries, in terms of control from above: +
- +
-> Where in education youth is guided and regimented in +
-> its activity by state-supported teachers who are +
-> influenced by the authority of tradition in the form +
-> of established curricula, the only guide for service +
-> to the clientèle of the library has been the variety +
-> of reading interests of library patrons as interpreted +
-> by the librarian. True, occasional social pressures +
-> restricting the librarian's choice have been brought +
-> to bear in the way of censorship of certain books; the +
-> actual effect of this, however, has been small in +
-> comparison with the total amount of freedom enjoyed +
-> (p. 8). +
- +
-**Note:** Nice point about what it means to be a +
-librarian given that library use is not at all +
-obligatory by anyone: +
- +
-> The librarian must use his ingenuity and tact to the +
-> utmost to arouse and hold his patrons, the actual use +
-> of the library never being obligatory in any way, but +
-> resulting always from the purely voluntary urge of the +
-> patron (p. 9). +
- +
-**Note:** As relevant a discussion point today as then: +
- +
-> "An industrial civilization founded on technology, +
-> science, invention, and expanding markets must of +
-> necessity change and change rapidly." Any institution +
-> which does not change too, adapt itself to the times, +
-> and become part of the onward "drive to change," will +
-> be pushed aside to be left perhaps for a time to make +
-> a harmless life of its own (p. 10). +
- +
-The quote is from footnote 16: +
- +
-> C. A. Beard, **A Charter for the social sciences in +
-> the schools** (New York, 1932), pp. 28, 31. +
- +
-**Note:** On page 12, the author discusses the *recent* +
-development of reader adviser services. +
- +
-**Note:** Interesting argument about the role of +
-librarians at the end of the article --- to make +
-accessible specialized research to the general public in +
-a form that the general public will appreciate. +
- +
----- +
- +
---- +
-layout: post +
-title: "LQ Vol 4 Issue 1 Article 2: Reading Study" +
-date: 2014-01-03 01:38 +
-comments: true +
-categories: [LQ Autoethno Field Notes, research, Author-Danton, Affil-University of Chicago] +
---- +
- +
-For an explanation of this post, see: +
-[Preface](/blog/2013/08/14/lq-autoethnography-research-journal-preface/+
- +
---- +
- +
-This entry is about: +
- +
-Danton, J. Periam. (1934). Our Libraries: The Trend +
-toward Democracy.  *The Library Quarterly, 4*(1), 16-27. +
-url:[http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302035](http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302035) +
- +
---- +
- +
-**Note:** The second article of the first issue of the +
-fourth volume of *The Library Quarterly* is titled "Our +
-Libraries: The Trend toward Democracy." +
- +
-It was written by J. Periam Danton, who was affiliated +
-with: +
- +
-**Affiliation:** University of Chicago +
- +
-**Note:** The Depression is really becoming evident in +
-these articles now. +
- +
-**Note:** The previous article hinted at the same idea: +
- +
-> The very fact that an institution is forced to +
-> retrench may bring to light possible economies or +
-> improvements in efficiency or service which would not +
-> otherwise have been noticed (p. 16). +
- +
-**Note:** Examining not just libraries but democracy +
-itself: +
- +
-> It is by way of being platitudinous to say that the +
-> country and age in which we live are constitutionally +
-> democratic, but it may be valuable to recall and +
-> examine the assumption from time to time, particularly +
-> with regard to certain aspects of institution control +
-> and management as these are currently practiced (p. +
-> 16). +
- +
-**Note:** Interesting turn. This article is about the +
-management of libraries and how democratic their +
-practices are. First the author writes about book +
-selection and incorporating the entire staff, next the +
-author writes about composing annual reports, and then +
-the author provides other examples. This would make an +
-good, historical article for a library admin / +
-management course. +
- +
-**Note:** True today? +
- +
-> Corporate wealth has given up within the past twelve +
-> months more power than in any previous decade; labor +
-> now meets the representatives of government, industry, +
-> and the public on equal terms, and the voice of the +
-> employee, speaking through the new trade codes, has +
-> more authority and receives more attention than at +
-> almost any time in our history since the earliest +
-> colonial days (p. 19). +
- +
-**Note:** The above is followed with remarks on the +
-administration and organization of universities. +
-Important higher education comments here. +
- +
-**Note:** On the evolution of librarianship: +
- +
-> To be sure, the librarians-collector, the +
-> librarians-bibliographer, and the librarians-scholar +
-> of an older day have largely given place to, or been +
-> combined with, the librarian-organizer and executive +
-> of today (p. 24). +
- +
-**Note:** Ends with some provoking questions: +
- +
-> In short, is not the change from the present fairly +
-> autocratic administration of libraries to a more or +
-> less completely active, participating, democratic one +
-> an almost inevitable change to which we ought and must +
-> look forward, a change which should be aided in every +
-> way, and one for which librarians should prepare and +
-> be prepared (p. 27)? +
- +
-**Note:** J. Periam Danton was a very interesting person. More +
-about him and his work at Berkeley here: +
-[http://senate.universityofcalifornia.edu/inmemoriam/JosephPeriamDanton.htm](http://senate.universityofcalifornia.edu/inmemoriam/JosephPeriamDanton.htm). +
-E.g., while this is his first *LQ* article, his last one was +
-published in *LQ* 65 years later, in 1999. +
- +
----- +
- +
---- +
-layoutpost +
-title: "LQ Vol 4 Issue 1 Article 3: Reading Study" +
-date: 2014-01-03 02:03 +
-comments: true +
-categories: [LQ Autoethno Field Notes, research, Author-Borden, Affil-University of Pennsylvania] +
---- +
- +
-For an explanation of this post, see: +
-[Preface](/blog/2013/08/14/lq-autoethnography-research-journal-preface/+
- +
---- +
- +
-This entry is about: +
- +
-Borden, A. K. (1934). Libraries and Cultural +
-Renaissance. *The Library Quarterly, 4*(1), 28-35. +
-url:[http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302036](http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302036) +
- +
---- +
- +
-**Note:** The third article of the first issue of the +
-fourth volume of *The Library Quarterly* is titled " +
-Libraries and Cultural Renaissance." +
- +
-It was written by A. K. Borden, who was affiliated +
-with: +
- +
-**Affiliation:** University of Pennsylvania +
- +
-**Note:** Borden's third *LQ* article. The first one +
-(quote a few times so far in *LQ*) is [The Sociological +
-Beginnings of the Library Movement][1]. The second one, +
-also historical, is [Seventeenth-Century American +
-Libraries][2]. This article is also historical (dealing +
-with cultural revolutions in early England, France, and +
-Italy and the causal necessity of books and libraries), +
-and it's essential thesis is nicely summarized in the +
-last sentence: +
- +
-> Where and when the love of knowledge will blaze forth +
-> with renaissance proportions, no one knows, but the +
-> genius of the past will doubtless smile first on that +
-> place which has been busy storing its treasures (p. +
-> 35). +
- +
-[1]: /blog/2013/09/17/lq-vol-1-issue-3-article-3-reading-study/ +
-[2]: /blog/2013/11/08/lq-vol-2-issue-2-article-5-reading-study/ +
- +
----- +
- +
---- +
-layout: post +
-title: "LQ Vol 4 Issue 1 Article 4: Reading Study" +
-date: 2014-01-03 03:04 +
-comments: true +
-categories: [LQ Autoethno Field Notes, research, Author-Fuchs, Affil-Staatsbibliothek] +
---- +
- +
-For an explanation of this post, see: +
-[Preface](/blog/2013/08/14/lq-autoethnography-research-journal-preface/+
- +
---- +
- +
-This entry is about: +
- +
-Fuchs, Hermann. (1934). The "Gesamtkatalog" of the Prussian +
-Libraries. *The Library Quarterly, 4*(1), 36-49. +
-url:[http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302037](http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302037) +
- +
---- +
- +
-**Note:** The fourth article of the first issue of the +
-fourth volume of *The Library Quarterly* is titled "The +
-"Gesamtkatalog" of the Prussian Libraries." +
- +
-It was written by Hermann Fuchs, who was affiliated +
-with: +
- +
-**Affiliation:** Staatsbibliothek +
- +
-**Note:** The article is on the development of a union +
-catalog of most of the major libraries in Germany at the +
-time. It's odd reading an article like this knowing a +
-bit about what's happening in German in 1934 (e.g., +
-Hitler was Chancellor of Germany at this time) and what +
-will happen in just a few years from this date. +
- +
-In fact, I just did a search on Fuchs and it seems he +
-became a Nazi: +
- +
-[Between Two Worlds: The American Library in Paris +
-during the War, Occupation, and Liberation (1939 – 1945) +
-.doc +
-file](http://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/maack/Documents/BetweenTwoWorlds.doc) +
-by [Mary Niles +
-Maack](http://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/maack/+
- +
-All of the sudden, this article is really hard to +
-read. +
- +
-**Note:** In light of future developments, it's also odd +
-to read about American involvement in the creation of +
-this union catalog: +
- +
-> On January 1, 1933, help arrived on a grand scale. The +
-> Rockefeller Foundation, in order not only to double +
-> the editorial staff but also to aid the participating +
-> libraries, granted the funds for five years which make +
-> it possible, though not without sacrifice, to do the +
-> necessary additional work (pp. 46-47). +
- +
-And: +
- +
-> Equally gratefully they \[the participating +
-> libraries\] welcome the support offered by the +
-> American Library Association and the Bibliographical +
-> Society of America in soliciting subscribers for the +
-> **Gesamtkatalog** in the United States (p. 47). +
- +
-I don't know if anyone has pursued research on ALA'+
-relationship with Germany up to WWII. Needs investigation. +
- +
----- +
- +
---- +
-layout: post +
-title: "LQ Vol 4 Issue 1 Article 5Reading Study" +
-date: 2014-01-03 03:09 +
-comments: true +
-categories: [LQ Autoethno Field Notes, research, Author-Fuchs, Affil-Staatsbibliothek] +
---- +
- +
-For an explanation of this post, see: +
-[Preface](/blog/2013/08/14/lq-autoethnography-research-journal-preface/+
- +
---- +
- +
-This entry is about: +
- +
-Fuchs, Hermann. (1934). Der Gesamtkatalog Der +
-Preussichen Bibliotheken. *The Library Quarterly, 4*(1), +
-50-64. +
-url:[http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302038](http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302038) +
- +
---- +
- +
-**Note:** The fifth article of the first issue of the +
-fourth volume of *The Library Quarterly* is titled "Der +
-Gesamtkatalog Der Preussichen Bibliotheken." +
- +
-It was written by Hermann Fuchs, who was affiliated +
-with: +
- +
-**Affiliation:** Staatsbibliothek +
- +
-**Note:** The article is the German version of the +
-[previous +
-article](/blog/2014/01/03/lq-vol-4-issue-1-article-4-reading-study/). +
- +
----- +
- +
---- +
-layout: post +
-title: "LQ Vol 4 Issue 1 Article 6: Reading Study" +
-date: 2014-01-03 12:24 +
-comments: true +
-categories: [LQ Autoethno Field Notes, research, Author-Hanson, Affil-University of Chicago] +
---- +
- +
-For an explanation of this post, see: +
-[Preface](/blog/2013/08/14/lq-autoethnography-research-journal-preface/+
- +
---- +
- +
-This entry is about: +
- +
-Hanson, J. C. M. (1934). Sound and Unsound Economy in +
-Cataloging. *The Library Quarterly, 4*(1), 65-75. +
-url:[http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302039](http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302039) +
- +
---- +
- +
-**Note:** The sixth article of the first issue of the +
-fourth volume of *The Library Quarterly* is titled +
-"Sound and Unsound Economy in Cataloging." +
- +
-It was written by J. C. M. Hanson, who was affiliated +
-with: +
- +
-**Affiliation:** University of Chicago +
- +
-**Note:** This is a nice piece on the importance of doing good +
-cataloging work and on the lack of understanding that some +
-administrators had (at the time) about the complexity of doing +
-good cataloging work (and the associated costs). Good article to +
-cite in case I do more work related to the historical view of +
-librarians by administrations.  +
- +
-**Note:** Quotes Charles Martel, then "chief of the Catalog +
-Division of the Library of Congress" (p. 67). See footnotes for +
-information about the Martel papers to read. The author indicates +
-that this material should be, +
- +
-> read and re-read by those who ever and anon feel called on to +
-> attack the catalogues which aim to give somewhat full and +
-> explicit information (p. 67). +
- +
-**Note:** And this is essentially the modern agenda: +
- +
-> The arguments so far presented may be summed up as follows: (1) +
-> curtailment and omission of information and a lowering of +
-> standards of academic and professional training required from +
-> the cataloguing staff are not sound economy; (2) not only must +
-> the staff be permitted to make the bibliographical +
-> investigations necessary to insure an accurate and satisfactory +
-> entry, but it must be encouraged in these efforts; (3) competent +
-> supervision and revision must be provided to insure a proper +
-> correlation of results, harmony, and unity of interpretations +
-> and decisions; (4) the road to sound economy lies through the +
-> cooperation of many libraries---the more the better---agreement +
-> on rules and methods, and the establishment of a central +
-> authority to insure unity of effort (p. 71). +
- +
-**Note:** Great article. Interesting story about a conversation +
-the author had with Charles A. Cutter. See page 73. +
- +
----- +
- +
---- +
-layout: post +
-title: "LQ Vol 4 Issue 1 Article 7: Reading Study" +
-date: 2014-01-03 14:21 +
-comments: true +
-categories: [LQ Autoethno Field Notes, research, Author-Carnovsky, Affil-University of Chicago] +
---- +
- +
-For an explanation of this post, see: +
-[Preface](/blog/2013/08/14/lq-autoethnography-research-journal-preface/) +
- +
---- +
- +
-This entry is about: +
- +
-Carnovsky, Leon. (1934). A Study of the Relationship between +
-Reading Interest and Actual Reading. *The Library Quarterly, +
-4*(1), 76-110. +
-url:[http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302040](http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302040) +
- +
---- +
- +
-**Note:** The seventh article of the first issue of the fourth +
-volume of *The Library Quarterly* is titled "A Study of the +
-Relationship between Reading Interest and Actual Reading." +
- +
-It was written by Leon Carnovsky, who was affiliated with: +
- +
-**Affiliation:** University of Chicago +
- +
-**Note:** This is the fourth article by Carnovsky. He has an +
-article in each volume so far. +
- +
-**Note:** As with Carnovsky's first article in *LQ*, this is an +
-article about adult education and adult reading. He writes: +
- +
-> When the Graduate Library School was established at the +
-> University of Chicago, the field of adult reading was recognized +
-> as one directly pertinent to the primary objectives of +
-> librarianship and as a field of great social importance in +
-> itself. It was felt that cultivation of the field might serve to +
-> clarify certain fundamental objectives of public libraries, +
-> college libraries, and other agencies for the distribution of +
-> substantial literature (p. 78). +
- +
-Then he provides an outline, with research questions, of what this +
-field of adult reading seeks to ask. Quoted in part (questions +
-omitted): +
- +
-> A. Reading matter available   +
-> B. Reading population   +
-> C. The demand for reading   +
-> D. The status of reading   +
-> E. Consumption of reading   +
-> F. Effects of reading (p. 78). +
- +
-**Note:** Nice quote: +
- +
-> For the union between book and reader is a much more complex +
-> phenomenon than might appear at first glance (p. 79). +
- +
-**Note:** Much mention of Waples' work on reading. See previous +
-articles by Waple in *LQ*: +
- +
-[http://www.cseanburns.net/journal/blog/categories/author-waples/](/blog/categories/author-waples/+
- +
-**Note:** Inasmuch as this article is about preferences (reading), +
-Carnovsky does a wonderful job revealing how complicated +
-preferences are and how complicated it is to measure them. +
-Consider the following passage. Carnovsky makes a go at measuring +
-preferences, but he hedges his bets: +
- +
-> But if it were possible to measure, however roughly, the extent +
-> to which the objective factors have been present and thus have +
-> influenced reading, it would be possible to understand their +
-> influences as affecting reading interests. In the following +
-> discussion an approach is made to the problem of indicating and +
-> measuring certain factors whose presence or absence probably +
-> bears a definite relationship to the reading done (p. 83). +
- +
-**Note:** This is a long, detailed article and what Carnovsky is +
-trying to do is to, begin at least, establish some causal factors +
-that lead to reading particular works. Or at least have a +
-discussion about the possibility of that. He knows it's big game +
-hunting and that he's not going to accomplish it with this study +
-(which is nicely described), but the goal seems to be his main +
-agenda. +
- +
----- +
- +
---- +
-layout: post +
-title: "LQ Vol 4 Issue 1 Article 8: Reading Study" +
-date: 2014-01-03 14:34 +
-comments: true +
-categories: [LQ Autoethno Field Notes, research, Author-Wilson, Affil-University of Chicago] +
---- +
- +
-For an explanation of this post, see: +
-[Preface](/blog/2013/08/14/lq-autoethnography-research-journal-preface/+
- +
---- +
- +
-This entry is about: +
- +
-Wilson, Louis R. (1934). Richard Rogers Bowker: September 4+
-1848-November 12, 1933. *The Library Quarterly, 4*(1), 111-112. +
-url:[http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302041](http://www.jstor.org/stable/4302041) +
- +
---- +
- +
-**Note:** The eighth article of the first issue of the fourth +
-volume of *The Library Quarterly* is titled "Richard Rogers +
-Bowker: September 4, 1848-November 12, 1933." +
- +
-It was written by Louis R. Wilson, who was affiliated with: +
- +
-**Affiliation:** University of Chicago +
- +
-**Note:** A respectful obituary of Richard Rogers Bowker, one of +
-the founders of the American Library Association and the *Library +
-Journal*. +
- +
-**Note:** It should be noted that Bowker (and many in the +
-profession) were not a fan of *LQ* at the beginning. See my notes +
-on Steve Norman's (1988) article on the early years of *LQ*. +
- +
-[Steve Norman, 1988, +
-notes](http://www.cseanburns.net/journal/blog/2013/07/24/lq-lit-review-1-autoethnographic-study/)+
lq/volume-4.1485722379.txt.gz · Last modified: 2017/01/29 15:39 by seanburns