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-<markdown> 
-# Constant Disruption 
-## Date: Wed 23 Jan 2019  
  
-The first listed reading we have this week is by Marshall Breeding. 
-Astute observers will note that Breeding is one of the first people 
-cited in the two additional readings we have this week. We'll read more 
-from Breeding later in the semester, but I bring him up now because he 
-also oversees a website titled [Library Technology Guides][1] at 
-librarytechnology.org. If you would like to keep abreast of the recent 
-news on the electronic resource industry, Breeding's website should be 
-at the top of your list. 
- 
-Breeding's *What is ERM?* article is a good one to start off with this 
-week. He provides not only a nice outline of the various components of 
-electronic resources, but he also provides some historical context for 
-those components. One caveat: Breeding, as well as the other two 
-articles on our list this week, is focused on academic libraries. I'm 
-afraid that there isn't much literature (that I have seen, at least) 
-that provides the same kind of information from other library types. I 
-think this is because librarians in other libraries publish less often 
-than academic librarians, who are often required to publish to acquire 
-tenure, and when they do publish, they generally publish on other 
-topics. However, the same processes that our articles describe generally 
-hold for other types of libraries. Differences in processes and in some 
-details will arise, though, because of organizational or other 
-contextual issues. For example, public libraries are often tightly 
-connected to municipalities or county governments, as well as to their 
-state libraries. Not only does that raises organizational challenges, 
-but it also highlights the fact that municipal, county, or state laws 
-will define how some processes must be handled and who must handle them. 
-The same is true for public schools, and in such cases, school boards 
-and school districts will likely be involved. Other issues may impact 
-things a bit too. As some of you have noted, public libraries provide 
-more ebooks and audiobooks and less ejournals than academic libraries. 
-That will change the emphasis on some aspects of the ERM work flow. 
- 
-That said, I understand that some of the terms he uses and the 
-technologies he describes might still be foreign to some of you. I'm not 
-going to rehash or summarize these articles here -- we'll simply discuss 
-them on the boards, but I do want to spend some time providing some 
-additional background information -- and highlight some of the things to 
-look for in these three articles. 
- 
-As I've previously mentioned, librarians have been migrating to some 
-kind of electronic management since the 1970s. Breeding mentions this, 
-too. It actually started well before this -- in fact, I published a 
-paper a few years ago that provides a historical account of the first 
-library automation project, which took place in the 1930s with punched 
-cards. However, around the 1960s, the primary use of computers was to 
-manage circulation, and then patron records. In the early 1970s, tools 
-became available to manage and search bibliographic records. That is, 
-computers were first used mostly to manage circulation of books, then to 
-add patron records, which allowed patrons to check out works 
-electronically, and finally to search for works. If a work of interest 
-was located using these tools, then that work could be retrieved from 
-the shelves or ordered via interlibrary loan by snail mail. Full text, 
-by and large, came much later and is largely the result of the 
-introduction of the web in the early 1990s, which at its heart is 
-nothing more than a big document retrieval system, as well as with the 
-introduction of bigger storage devices, such as CD-ROMs. 
- 
-In the process of migrating from print to electronic, all sorts of 
-things had to change, but they all rest on the major premise of all 
-librarianship -- *that we organize information in order to retrieve 
-information*. Although you may have often heard that libraries are 
-ancient things, libraries and librarianship didn't truly modernize until 
-the 1920s and 1930s when some in the profession began to hone in on the 
-major complexities and challenges involved in organizing and retrieving 
-information. The challenges with organizing and retrieving information 
-that they identified nearly 100 years ago were indeed major and 
-problematic, but fortuitous, because it gave rise to what we know 
-called *library science*. 
- 
-Yet consider that when those people laid the groundwork for a library 
-science, librarians only managed print and the primary means of 
-accessing print collections was through a physical building. With the 
-introduction of the computers in the 1960s and with networking 
-technologies in the 1990s, issues with organizing and retrieving 
-information grew exponentially, and indeed, this exponential increase in 
-complex issues launched an entire new field, what we now call 
-*information science*. 
- 
-All right -- back to the ground level. Let me highlight some of the key 
-terms in Breeding's article. They include: 
- 
-* Finding aids 
-* Knowledge bases 
-* OpenURL link resolvers 
-* ERM systems 
-* Library service platforms 
-* Integrated library systems (ILS) 
- 
-Unless you already have some solid experience with these things, and 
-even after reading Breeding's nice article, these terms may still be 
-abstract for you all. So, this week, you have two major tasks: 
- 
-1. Find real, practical examples. Pick one or two of the above terms and 
-   see how they work in practice. Then come back here and tell us what 
-   you found. 
-2. Locate how these terms appear in either the Cote & Ostergaard (2017) 
-   article or the Fu & Carmen (2015). Note other terms that may appear 
-   in those two articles and comment on the role they play in the ERM 
-   work flow and the migration process. 
- 
-As you work on this, I ask that you pay attention to the emphasis on 
-work flow. We're reading the Cote & Ostergaard article and the Fu & 
-Carmen article not just because migrating to new systems is a big deal, 
-but also because it's significant that there's a need to write and 
-publish articles on migration topics. In the print era, there were some 
-cases where librarians might migrate to a new system. For example, some 
-research libraries in the U.S. started off by classifying their works 
-using the Dewey Decimal Classification system, but then began to convert 
-to the Library of Congress Classification system. This was no small 
-task, but it was also not that common. Today, migration is big business, 
-so to speak, in the library world because the technology changes so fast 
-and because there are a number of competing electronic resource 
-management products that librarians have to choose from, and do when 
-those products provide advantages to their users, communities, and 
-themselves. 
- 
-[1]:https://librarytechnology.org/ 
-</markdown> 
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