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teaching:interoperability [2019/02/08 21:02]
seanburns
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-<markdown> 
-# Interoperability 
-## Date: Wed 13 Feb 2019 
  
-This week we learn about interoperability and link resolvers. Link 
-resolvers are a technical solution to help users of electronic resources 
-access the full text of a citation in a library's collections, or to 
-acquire access through some other means, such as through interlibrary 
-loan or through identifying the location of the work on the library 
-shelf. In particular, the technology is a way to provide access to a 
-library's collections from a browser even if the user is not 
-specifically searching within the library's website, or more 
-specifically, within its discovery system. If it helps, link resolvers 
-are simply a way to search across multiple systems at one, just like 
-you or I would do in a federated search discovery system. 
- 
-Let's imagine that you have conducted a search in *Google Scholar*, 
-let's call this the *source*, and you have identified an article that 
-you wish to retrieve. If you have made *Google Scholar* aware that you 
-are affiliated with a specific library and if that library uses a link 
-resolver service, then: 
- 
-1. the metadata about the article will be extracted from the source, in 
-   this case, that's *Google Scholar*, and this will be added to  
-2. the metadata about the institution (administrative metadata, such as 
-   an institutional ID number). 
-3. the metadata is converted into a URL query that queries the library's 
-   collections 
-4. the user is then presented with *target* options (or taken directly 
-   to the work) for retrieving the article, and the options may include 
-   full text access from various and possibly multiple vendors or 
-   publishers, information about the physical location (e.g., on the 
-   shelves) if it exists, or options to request the work through 
-   interlibrary loan. Ideally, it will lead the user directly to the 
-   full text. 
- 
-See [Link Resolver 101][1] for additional details and this historical 
-piece on [link resolvers][2]. 
- 
-[1]:https://web.archive.org/web/20140419201741/http://lj.libraryjournal.com:80/2004/04/ljarchives/the-lure-of-linking/#LinkResolver 
-[2]:https://web.archive.org/web/20140419201741/http://lj.libraryjournal.com:80/2004/04/ljarchives/the-lure-of-linking/ 
- 
-Let's consider a basic keyword search on *Google Scholar* for the term 
-**[ knowledge management ]**. One of the first items listed in the 
-results page is to an article titled "A systems thinking framework for 
-knowledge management." If you've already gone to *Google Scholar's* 
-settings, and added your library to the **Library Links** list, then you 
-should see a **View Now @ UK** link off to the right of your searches 
-there. This indicates the likelihood, although there could be an error, 
-that the article is available through UK Libraries. 
- 
-Now we take a look at the URL for the **View Now @ UK** link by right 
-clicking on it and breaking it down into its components. What we see 
-here is what is called a [query string][3]. A query string is a part of 
-the URL that contains (metadata) fields and values for those fields, and 
-it begins after the letter *q* in the URL. Each new parameter, or field, 
-begins after each ampersand. In the query below, I start each newline 
-with a new field and end it with its value: 
- 
-``` 
-https://scholar.google.com/scholar? 
-output=instlink& 
-q=info:cGrF-EL6GzgJ:scholar.google.com/& 
-hl=en&as_sdt=0,18& 
-scillfp=3492933523235496650& 
-oi=lle 
-``` 
- 
-[3]:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Query_string 
- 
-Most of what we see in that URL is meaningless to us because it's 
-metadata specific to Google's protocols, but if we click on that **View 
-Now @ UK** link, we are now transported, because of the information in 
-the previous link, to UK's discovery service, *Primo*, by *Ex Libris*. 
- 
-In Primo, if we look at the new URL, we see specifically that it's an 
-OpenURL link and we can see the fields and values and identify the 
-metadata (one line is broken up for readability). The percent signs and 
-numbers in the title field are called [Percent-encoding][4], and are 
-used to convert characters that are URL unfriendly, like empty spaces 
-between words, to something that URLs can handle and parse. See [this 
-page][5] for a table of UTF-8 percent-encodings and the characters they 
-match: 
- 
-[4]:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percent-encoding 
-[5]:https://www.w3schools.com/tags/ref_urlencode.asp 
- 
-``` 
-https://saa-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo-explore/openurl? 
-sid=google& 
-auinit=B& 
-aulast=Rubenstein-Montano& 
-atitle=A%20systems%20thinking%20framework%20for%20knowledge%20management& 
-id=doi:10.1016%2FS0167-9236(00)00116-0& 
-title=Decision%20support%20systems%20for%20C%20management%20 
-  across%20the%20U.S.%20Corn%20Belt%20using%20NASA%20remote%20 
-  sensing%20data%20products%20...%20annual%20report& 
-volume=31& 
-issue=1& 
-date=2001& 
-spage=5& 
-vid=UKY& 
-institution=UKY& 
-url_ctx_val=& 
-url_ctx_fmt=null& 
-isSerivcesPage=true 
-``` 
- 
-Also, the resulting page is the menu of options available to us to gain 
-access to the work. The link resolver technology works and translates 
-the metadata as needed for the appropriate service. If I click on the 
-ILL link, then the URL becomes this, which will be used to complete a 
-ILL form (one line is broken up for readability): 
- 
-``` 
-https://lib.uky.edu/ILLiad/illiad.dll? 
-Action=10& 
-Form=30& 
-rft.genre=article& 
-rft.title=Decision+support+systems.& 
-rft.stitle=Decision+support+systems& 
-rft.atitle=A+systems+thinking+framework+for+knowledge+management& 
-rft.jtitle=Decision+support+systems.& 
-rft.au=Rubenstein-Montano%2C+B& 
-rft.date=2001& 
-rft.month=5& 
-rft.volume=31& 
-rft.issue=1& 
-rft.number=& 
-rft.spage=5& 
-rft.epage=16& 
-rft.edition=& 
-rft.issn=0167-9236& 
-rft.eissn=1873-5797& 
-rft.aulast=Rubenstein-Montano& 
-rft.aufirst=B& 
-rft.auinit=B& 
-rft.pub=Elsevier+Science+Publishers+BV+%28North+Holland%29& 
-rft.pubdate=1985-c1999.& 
-rft.pubyear=& 
-rft.publisher=Elsevier+Science+Publishers+BV+%28North+Holland%29& 
-rft.place=Amsterdam%2C+the+Netherlands+%3A& 
-rft.doi=10.1016%2FS0167-9236%2800%2900116-0& 
-rfe_dat=11804282& 
-rfr_id=google 
-``` 
- 
-This all works because the various publishers and vendors, and their 
-associated applications, have agreed to using this technology. 
- 
-Now let's thus consider an example of a database that a library 
-subscribes to, such as EBCOHost's *Academic Search Complete*. Here again 
-I search for the term [ knowledge management ]. *Academic Search 
-Complete* is more than a bibliographic database, it also provides access 
-to full text articles within its own database (*Google Scholar* will 
-link to them if they're freely available on the web, but it doesn't 
-actually collect them). However, *ASC* also provides access to 
-bibliographic records to items that it does not provide full text access 
-to. This is where the link resolver comes into play. 
- 
-For those bibliographic records that are not available as full text in 
-*ASC*, the link resolver used by UK Libraries will be displayed 
-underneath the record in the *ASC* results or even after clicking on the 
-full display of the record. Here you see the link resolver in action in 
-the form of the **View Now @ UK** button. Clicking on that will open the 
-link resolver menu, and we will see a list of options for accessing the 
-full text of the article. If the article is available full text 
-somewhere in the library, such as through a different database, we 
-should see that here, but if not, there should be options for requesting 
-the item through interlibrary loan, as well as options for accessing the 
-item in the library's physical collections if it exists there. 
- 
-## Link Resolvers in Practice 
- 
-Our readings this week by Kasprowski (2012) and by Chisari et al. (2017) 
-discuss in some ways how the link resolver technology works and how to 
-evaluate link resolver technology. It may not be necessary to learn how 
-to hack your way through the OpenURL syntax or other aspects of link 
-resolver URL formatting, but it is a good idea to have at least a basic 
-understanding how the URLs work in this process. 
- 
-Let me highlight that the key way that link resolvers work is by 
-embedding citation metadata within the link resolver URL, including 
-administrative metadata. Thus, as you guessed it, this is another reason 
-why it's important to have high quality metadata for our records, as 
-our readings note, and thus, by implication, if we find that link 
-resolvers break down, it might be that the metadata is incorrect or has 
-changed in some important way. 
- 
-For this week, I'll provide a link to the some documentation about the 
-link resolver technology used by UK Libraries use of *ExLibres Alma*. 
-Let's discuss this documentation in this week's forum. I also want you 
-to find and explain other instances of link resolvers. Be sure to 
-provide links to these examples and perhaps point out some ways the 
-technology can be evaluated. 
- 
-**Documentation to read and discuss:** 
- 
-[https://knowledge.exlibrisgroup.com/Alma/Product_Materials/050Alma_FAQs/E-Resource_Management/Link_Resolver%2C_Usage][6] 
- 
-**Additional information:** 
- 
-- URL syntax components: [https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#page-16][7] 
-- URL Encode / Decode Percent Encoding: [https://www.url-encode-decode.com/][8] 
-- How Google Scholar works with libraries: [https://scholar.google.com/intl/en/scholar/libraries.html][9] 
- 
-[6]:https://knowledge.exlibrisgroup.com/Alma/Product_Materials/050Alma_FAQs/E-Resource_Management/Link_Resolver%2C_Usage 
-[7]:https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#page-16 
-[8]:https://www.url-encode-decode.com/ 
-[9]:https://scholar.google.com/intl/en/scholar/libraries.html 
- 
-</markdown> 
teaching/interoperability.1549677754.txt.gz ยท Last modified: 2019/02/08 21:02 by seanburns