# C. Sean Burns: Notebook

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teaching:interoperability

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 teaching:interoperability [2019/02/08 21:02]seanburns — (current) Both sides previous revision Previous revision 2020/09/23 09:04 seanburns removed2019/02/08 21:02 seanburns 2019/02/08 21:01 seanburns 2019/02/08 21:01 seanburns created Next revision Previous revision 2020/09/23 09:04 seanburns removed2019/02/08 21:02 seanburns 2019/02/08 21:01 seanburns 2019/02/08 21:01 seanburns created Line 1: Line 1: - - # Interoperability - ## Date: Wed 13 Feb 2019 - This week we learn about interoperability and link resolvers. Link - resolvers are a technical solution to help users of electronic resources - access the full text of a citation in a library's collections, or to - acquire access through some other means, such as through interlibrary - loan or through identifying the location of the work on the library - shelf. In particular, the technology is a way to provide access to a - library's collections from a browser even if the user is not - specifically searching within the library's website, or more - specifically, within its discovery system. If it helps, link resolvers - are simply a way to search across multiple systems at one, just like - you or I would do in a federated search discovery system. - - Let's imagine that you have conducted a search in *Google Scholar*, - let's call this the *source*, and you have identified an article that - you wish to retrieve. If you have made *Google Scholar* aware that you - are affiliated with a specific library and if that library uses a link - resolver service, then: - - 1. the metadata about the article will be extracted from the source, in - this case, that's *Google Scholar*, and this will be added to - 2. the metadata about the institution (administrative metadata, such as - an institutional ID number). - 3. the metadata is converted into a URL query that queries the library's - collections - 4. the user is then presented with *target* options (or taken directly - to the work) for retrieving the article, and the options may include - full text access from various and possibly multiple vendors or - publishers, information about the physical location (e.g., on the - shelves) if it exists, or options to request the work through - interlibrary loan. Ideally, it will lead the user directly to the - full text. - - See [Link Resolver 101][1] for additional details and this historical - piece on [link resolvers][2]. - - [1]:https://web.archive.org/web/20140419201741/http://lj.libraryjournal.com:80/2004/04/ljarchives/the-lure-of-linking/#LinkResolver - [2]:https://web.archive.org/web/20140419201741/http://lj.libraryjournal.com:80/2004/04/ljarchives/the-lure-of-linking/ - - Let's consider a basic keyword search on *Google Scholar* for the term - **[ knowledge management ]**. One of the first items listed in the - results page is to an article titled "A systems thinking framework for - knowledge management." If you've already gone to *Google Scholar's* - settings, and added your library to the **Library Links** list, then you - should see a **View Now @ UK** link off to the right of your searches - there. This indicates the likelihood, although there could be an error, - that the article is available through UK Libraries. - - Now we take a look at the URL for the **View Now @ UK** link by right - clicking on it and breaking it down into its components. What we see - here is what is called a [query string][3]. A query string is a part of - the URL that contains (metadata) fields and values for those fields, and - it begins after the letter *q* in the URL. Each new parameter, or field, - begins after each ampersand. In the query below, I start each newline - with a new field and end it with its value: - -  - https://scholar.google.com/scholar? - output=instlink& - q=info:cGrF-EL6GzgJ:scholar.google.com/& - hl=en&as_sdt=0,18& - scillfp=3492933523235496650& - oi=lle -  - - [3]:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Query_string - - Most of what we see in that URL is meaningless to us because it's - metadata specific to Google's protocols, but if we click on that **View - Now @ UK** link, we are now transported, because of the information in - the previous link, to UK's discovery service, *Primo*, by *Ex Libris*. - - In Primo, if we look at the new URL, we see specifically that it's an - OpenURL link and we can see the fields and values and identify the - metadata (one line is broken up for readability). The percent signs and - numbers in the title field are called [Percent-encoding][4], and are - used to convert characters that are URL unfriendly, like empty spaces - between words, to something that URLs can handle and parse. See [this - page][5] for a table of UTF-8 percent-encodings and the characters they - match: - - [4]:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percent-encoding - [5]:https://www.w3schools.com/tags/ref_urlencode.asp - -  - https://saa-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo-explore/openurl? - sid=google& - auinit=B& - aulast=Rubenstein-Montano& - atitle=A%20systems%20thinking%20framework%20for%20knowledge%20management& - id=doi:10.1016%2FS0167-9236(00)00116-0& - title=Decision%20support%20systems%20for%20C%20management%20 - across%20the%20U.S.%20Corn%20Belt%20using%20NASA%20remote%20 - sensing%20data%20products%20...%20annual%20report& - volume=31& - issue=1& - date=2001& - spage=5& - vid=UKY& - institution=UKY& - url_ctx_val=& - url_ctx_fmt=null& - isSerivcesPage=true -  - - Also, the resulting page is the menu of options available to us to gain - access to the work. The link resolver technology works and translates - the metadata as needed for the appropriate service. If I click on the - ILL link, then the URL becomes this, which will be used to complete a - ILL form (one line is broken up for readability): - -  - https://lib.uky.edu/ILLiad/illiad.dll? - Action=10& - Form=30& - rft.genre=article& - rft.title=Decision+support+systems.& - rft.stitle=Decision+support+systems& - rft.atitle=A+systems+thinking+framework+for+knowledge+management& - rft.jtitle=Decision+support+systems.& - rft.au=Rubenstein-Montano%2C+B& - rft.date=2001& - rft.month=5& - rft.volume=31& - rft.issue=1& - rft.number=& - rft.spage=5& - rft.epage=16& - rft.edition=& - rft.issn=0167-9236& - rft.eissn=1873-5797& - rft.aulast=Rubenstein-Montano& - rft.aufirst=B& - rft.auinit=B& - rft.pub=Elsevier+Science+Publishers+BV+%28North+Holland%29& - rft.pubdate=1985-c1999.& - rft.pubyear=& - rft.publisher=Elsevier+Science+Publishers+BV+%28North+Holland%29& - rft.place=Amsterdam%2C+the+Netherlands+%3A& - rft.doi=10.1016%2FS0167-9236%2800%2900116-0& - rfe_dat=11804282& - rfr_id=google -  - - This all works because the various publishers and vendors, and their - associated applications, have agreed to using this technology. - - Now let's thus consider an example of a database that a library - subscribes to, such as EBCOHost's *Academic Search Complete*. Here again - I search for the term [ knowledge management ]. *Academic Search - Complete* is more than a bibliographic database, it also provides access - to full text articles within its own database (*Google Scholar* will - link to them if they're freely available on the web, but it doesn't - actually collect them). However, *ASC* also provides access to - bibliographic records to items that it does not provide full text access - to. This is where the link resolver comes into play. - - For those bibliographic records that are not available as full text in - *ASC*, the link resolver used by UK Libraries will be displayed - underneath the record in the *ASC* results or even after clicking on the - full display of the record. Here you see the link resolver in action in - the form of the **View Now @ UK** button. Clicking on that will open the - link resolver menu, and we will see a list of options for accessing the - full text of the article. If the article is available full text - somewhere in the library, such as through a different database, we - should see that here, but if not, there should be options for requesting - the item through interlibrary loan, as well as options for accessing the - item in the library's physical collections if it exists there. - - ## Link Resolvers in Practice - - Our readings this week by Kasprowski (2012) and by Chisari et al. (2017) - discuss in some ways how the link resolver technology works and how to - evaluate link resolver technology. It may not be necessary to learn how - to hack your way through the OpenURL syntax or other aspects of link - resolver URL formatting, but it is a good idea to have at least a basic - understanding how the URLs work in this process. - - Let me highlight that the key way that link resolvers work is by - embedding citation metadata within the link resolver URL, including - administrative metadata. Thus, as you guessed it, this is another reason - why it's important to have high quality metadata for our records, as - our readings note, and thus, by implication, if we find that link - resolvers break down, it might be that the metadata is incorrect or has - changed in some important way. - - For this week, I'll provide a link to the some documentation about the - link resolver technology used by UK Libraries use of *ExLibres Alma*. - Let's discuss this documentation in this week's forum. I also want you - to find and explain other instances of link resolvers. Be sure to - provide links to these examples and perhaps point out some ways the - technology can be evaluated. - - **Documentation to read and discuss:** - - [https://knowledge.exlibrisgroup.com/Alma/Product_Materials/050Alma_FAQs/E-Resource_Management/Link_Resolver%2C_Usage][6] - - **Additional information:** - - - URL syntax components: [https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#page-16][7] - - URL Encode / Decode Percent Encoding: [https://www.url-encode-decode.com/][8] - - How Google Scholar works with libraries: [https://scholar.google.com/intl/en/scholar/libraries.html][9] - - [6]:https://knowledge.exlibrisgroup.com/Alma/Product_Materials/050Alma_FAQs/E-Resource_Management/Link_Resolver%2C_Usage - [7]:https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#page-16 - [8]:https://www.url-encode-decode.com/ - [9]:https://scholar.google.com/intl/en/scholar/libraries.html - -