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teaching:standardizing-electronic-resource-management [2019/02/01 10:48] (current)
seanburns created
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 +<​markdown>​
 +# Standardizing Terms for Electronic Resource Management
 +## Date: Thu 06 Feb 2019 
  
 +A few years ago now, I conducted some basic historical research on a
 +librarian named Ralph Parker. Inspired by technological advances in
 +automation, specifically the punched card, Parker began to work out how
 +to apply this technology to library circulation starting in the 1930s,
 +and ended up becoming the first person to automate part of the library'​s
 +work flow. By the mid-1960s, Parker'​s continued pursuit of library
 +automation led to some major advances, including the founding of OCLC,
 +and the punched card system he developed over many years led to massive
 +increases in circulation and better service to patrons. After making
 +these advances, he wrote in the mid-60s the following about the
 +installation and launch of a new punched card system to help automate
 +circulation:​
 +
 +> "To the delight of the patrons it requires only four seconds to check
 +> out materials"​ (as cited in Burns, 2013).
 +
 +Think about that comment for a second and recognize how delighted not
 +only the patrons must have been but also the librarians, such that the
 +time was reduced to four seconds. Imagine how long it took before this
 +reduction was accomplished.
 +
 +Technology does, in some or many cases, lead to progress, but progress
 +and influence are more involved than that. Change comes not just from
 +nifty new technological developments or from the application of
 +technologies,​ but also from the standardization of technology. Standards
 +enable multiple groups of competing interests to form consensus about
 +how technology should work, and when this happens, multiple parties
 +receive payoffs at the expense of any one party acquiring a monopoly.
 +This is true for things as simple as the design of screwdrivers,​ the
 +width of railroad tracks, the temperature scale, and certainly also to
 +how information is managed and exchanged. The internet and the web
 +wouldn'​t exist, or definitely not exist as we know it, if not for the
 +standardization of the Internet Protocol (IP), the Transmission Control
 +Protocol (TCP), the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and other
 +internet and web related technologies that make the internet and the web
 +work for so many users regardless of the operating system and the
 +hardware they use. 
 +
 +Our first article this week is written by Pat Harris and covers the
 +basic reasons for the existence of [NISO][1] (the National Information
 +Standards Organization) and the kinds of standards NISO is responsible
 +for maintaining and creating. If you haven'​t before paid attention to
 +NISO, you might now start seeing more references to the organization and
 +the standards it publishes, especially because the international library
 +community has worked closely with NISO to develop standards for various
 +aspects of library work.
 +
 +Historical note: As Harris points out in the article, NISO came into
 +existence in the mid-1930s. This was about the same time that Ralph
 +Parker, mentioned above, began working on his punched card system. Not
 +long before this, in the late 1920s, the first library science graduate
 +program launched at the University of Chicago, and in the early 1930s,
 +the first research based journal started, *The Library Quarterly*. We
 +often talk about how long libraries have existed, and it's true that
 +there were quite a few accomplishments before the 1930s, but it's this
 +time period (for these and a number of other reasons) that really marks
 +the modern era of libraries.
 +
 +Our additional readings are about TERMS, or Techniques for Electronic
 +Resource Management. TERMS is not a true standard, but more of a *de
 +facto* one that helps outline the electronic resource management work
 +flow. It was developed in order for librarians or others dealing with
 +electronic resources to come to a consensus about the processes and
 +parts of electronic resource management. The first version of TERMS is
 +described by the TERMS authors in the *Library Technology Reports*
 +readings of chapters 1-8. Although it has been replaced by a [newer
 +version][6],​ it still functions as a thorough introduction to the ERM
 +work flow and provides guidance and suggestions about all aspects of
 +electronic resource management. For example, in [chapter 7][7] of the
 +LTS report on TERMS version 1, the authors provide very helpful
 +information on the importance of working with providers or vendors in
 +case of cancellation of a resource. They write:
 +
 +> Do not burn any bridges! Many resources have postcancellation access,
 +> which means you need to keep up a working relationship with suppliers;
 +> this might also incur a platform access fee going forward, so this
 +> needs to be budgeted for in future years. Review the license to fully
 +> understand what your postcancellation rights to access may be. In
 +> addition, you may resubscribe to the resources in future years.
 +> Content is bought and sold by publishers and vendors. Therefore, you
 +> may end up back with your original vendor a year or two down the line!
 +
 +Some of this material is repeated in version 2 of TERMS, but version 2
 +was created in order to address some changes in the world and to include
 +more input from the community. Version 2 also includes a slightly
 +modified outline, and [includes the following parts][8]:
 +
 +1. Investigating new content for purchase or addition
 +2. Acquiring new content
 +3. Implementation
 +4. Ongoing evaluation and access, and annual review
 +5. Cancellation and replacement review
 +6. Preservation
 +
 +At the same link just provided, they also write about this new version:
 +
 +> In addition to the works mentioned or cited in the original TERMS
 +> report, much has been written in the past few years that can help the
 +> overwhelmed or incoming electronic resources librarian manage their
 +> daily workflow. In the end, however, most of the challenges facing the
 +> management of electronic resources is directly related to workflow
 +> management. How we manage these challenging or complex resources is
 +> more important than what we do, because how we do it informs how
 +> successful and how meaningful the work is, and how well it completes
 +> our goal of getting access to patrons who want to use these resources.
 +
 +As such, the outline and the content described in these two versions of
 +TERMS is very much about centered on the ERM work flow. Thus, TERMS is
 +essentially a guide and framework for thinking about the different parts
 +of the electronic resource life cycle within the library, and helps
 +provide librarians with a set of questions and points of investigation.
 +For example, let's consider the first TERM, which is to investigate new
 +content for purchase or addition. In a presentation by the [Emery and
 +Stone (2014)][2], they suggest that this involves the following steps,
 +partly paraphrased:​
 +
 +- outline what you want to achieve
 +- create a specification document
 +- assemble the right team
 +- review the market and literature and set up trial
 +- speak with suppliers and vendors
 +- make a decision (Emery and Stone, slide 12, 2014)
 +
 +Emery and Stone provide other examples, and the TERMS listed in this
 +slide are from the first version. TERM 6, PRESERVATION,​ was added in
 +version 2, and TERMS 4 and 5 were joined together. There'​s a link to
 +these slides, with further examples, in the transcript of this lecture,
 +as well as the citation.
 +
 +This week you have two part exercise: first, you'll visit the NISO
 +website and search for documentation on a standard, technical report, or
 +recommended best practice and post about it. Second, after reading about
 +TERMS and perusing through the slides, try to place these TERMS in
 +additional electronic resource management context. Please draw from
 +experience or use your imagination.
 +
 +I'm requiring a lot of reading this week because these readings really
 +capture the specifics of the ERM work flow, and understanding them will
 +help you get started and attain success in this position. The Rinck
 +article is a nice interview with the authors of TERMS. Consider this
 +optional reading, but its still worthy of your time.
 +
 +Emery, J., & Stone, G. (2014). Techniques for Electronic Resource
 +Management (TERMS): From coping to best practices. In 2014 AALL Annual
 +Meeting and Conference, 12-15 July 2014, Henry B. Gonzalez Convention
 +Center, San Antonio, TX. http://​eprints.hud.ac.uk/​id/​eprint/​19420/​
 +
 +**Sources for NISO tasks:**
 +
 +- NISO: Recommended Practices: [https://​www.niso.org/​explore/​type?​type=11][3]
 +- NISO: Technical Reports: [https://​www.niso.org/​explore/​type?​type=21][4]
 +- NISO: Standards: [https://​www.niso.org/​publications/​standards][5]
 +
 +[1]:​http://​www.niso.org/​
 +[2]:​http://​eprints.hud.ac.uk/​id/​eprint/​19420/​
 +[3]:​http://​www.niso.org/​publications/​rp/​
 +[4]:​http://​www.niso.org/​publications/​tr/​
 +[5]:​http://​www.niso.org/​apps/​group_public/​projects.php
 +[6]:​http://​6terms.tumblr.com/​
 +[7]:​https://​journals.ala.org/​index.php/​ltr/​article/​view/​4738/​5647
 +[8]:​https://​library2.hud.ac.uk/​blogs/​terms/​announcing-terms-ver2-0/​terms-ver2-0-introduction/​
 +</​markdown>​
teaching/standardizing-electronic-resource-management.txt ยท Last modified: 2019/02/01 10:48 by seanburns